Networked Participation


  • Consumption – a process of using a resource

“You consumed all that food?”

  • Constitutes – to be a part of something

“Water constitutes 70 percent of the human body”

  • Inactive – not being involved in an activity

“You are so inactive during your PE classes”

  • Digital revolution – refers to the advancement of technology

“Mobile phones have benefited the most in this digital revolution”

  • Lurkers – are sources or/and individuals that observe others activities online however are not active themselves

“Thomas is always lurking on my Facebook profile”

  • Commentary – an individual expressing their opinion or explanation about an event or a situation.

“Commentary will get you in trouble if you say the wrong thing”

  • Production values – are objects such as lights, cameras and other props used to improve filming or a play.


A keyword that stood out to me was ‘lurkers’ I found it interesting that there are individuals that actually go online to just gather information, however apps and other online networks are known to gather information about us to create social graphs to find out and predict our personalities and are next possible choices. Therefore are they lurkers too? Yet, we as individuals are known to be lurkers ourselves we go on social medias such as Facebook, Twitter etc. and we see what people post and talk about however we choose to not be activate enough to ‘like’ nor ‘retweet’.


Another keyword that stood out to me was ‘digital revolution’, technology has developed vastly over the last years and the new generation is practically born with it. This made me think about the fact that the older generation that were not born into the digital lifestyle actually worry about what happens to their data and questions why it needs to be collected whereas the new generation do not seem to have a problem with it nor do they choose to question it. Since the older generation did not have the same access to the internet as the youth has now they are not so aware of what actually is going on online as much as some of the youths therefore this has lead to them being skeptical about these computers that everyone seems to use nowadays collecting out data at all times on our day-to-day activities.


This article looks at how changing relations between media producers and their audiences are transforming the idea of meaningful participation. Many of us that have been so active on social media have not noticed the changes and effects social media has had on the way we communicate and the way societies have come together and changed the way they feel about each other. The article talks about the changes within the recent years on the network platform and how different people choose to act online. In 2007 a survey done in U.S. got insight about people online; 52 percent of people that were involved in this survey were available online however they choose to be inactive which meant they would upload very limited amount of things online and only 13 percent of the people that took part in the survey actually generated some sort of content online. Even though this number has increased vastly over the last years as now people are able to tag individuals in post that mean that people that do go on social medias see mainly the things that relate to them. The small percentages of people that do generate some sort of data online seem to be able to attract a large variety of audience. However many of the audience they do attract still choose to be inactive but only there as lurkers just to see and acknowledge the data presented to them this means that they themselves rarely go to produce anymore data for others however by them simple clicking on the substance they create cookies for companies to be able to judge them from.


“Every time a new consumer joins this media landscape, a new producer joins as well because the same equipment, phones, computers – lets you consumer and produce. It is as if when you bought a book, then threw the printing press for free” (Skrinky, 2005) Every single person that joins online on some sort of social medias create data, every time this individual uploads a photo or updates a status even when they ‘like’ something they are creating cookies that companies are able to sell and advertising companies can then adapt their adverts to the individual. Individuals have created all the new devices that have been created in the last decade with the intention of producing data for the society.

A quote that stood out to me within this article is was by Daniel Dayan’s that read, “A public is not simply a spectator in plural, a sum of spectators, an addition. It is a coherent entity whose nature is collective; an ensemble characterized by shared sociability, shared identity and some sense of that identity”. The reason this quote stood out to me because it made me think different of the data footprint we leave behind. Even though there is the negative of our privacy being broken by companies collecting our data and then selling it for others to benefit from our data by knowing how to target us. However the way people do not think of it is the fact that there is so much data that gets saved that it is all computer generated meaning that an individual would have to work extremely hard to find out information about you personally. All the data that gets collected is put together that is then used as one piece of data therefore it is not your own personal data that gets used, your personal data it is just a part of something bigger. These large pieces of data look into features of groups of people that seem to leave similar footprints online.

Another quote that stood out to me within this article is “managing, understanding, and responding to massive amounts of user-generated data in real time. Our phones and cameras are being turned into eyes and ears for applications; motion and location sensors tell where we are, what we’re looking at, and how fast we’re moving. Data is being collected, presented, and acted upon in real time. The scale of participation has increased by orders of magnitude”. Mobile phones have become so accessible to everyone in the last decade that they have become the source of generating data, they generate data by a variety of things from apps, internet searches even the actual application that runs the phones stores data. Since we use them everyday to carry out our daily activities companies have learned to use them to collect data in real lifetime from our mobile devices. Companies receiving our data in real lifetime mean that they are able to make decisions quickly therefore this leads to them targeting their target audience faster and more conveniently. Another better for advertising companies for them to be receiving data in real lifetime is that any changes that are seen in the social graph which is created by the data footprint collected means that these companies can see it straight away and act upon it.

Other researchers have discovered that online social networks can be much more segregated than social networks in the real world. Even though online helps people to stay in touch and bring people together that are far away and might not necessary be able to connect so easily in real life, however people online get to choose what they take part of. In real life if people get put in a positioning they have to be in it regardless whether they like it or not where as online people can quickly take themselves out of the position leading for them to be less interactive and separating communities as people are prejudging situations. Danah Boyd (2011) and S. Craig Watkins (2010) have documented, Facebook and other social network sites often operate as the digital equivalent of gated communities, protecting participants from online contact with people outside their social circle. Connecting with different communities online is easy and can lead to many positive outcomes such as people connecting that would not normally connect and learning about each other which would lead to people being more accepting of everyone which could lead to less violence.

The questions that arise to me through out this article is whether all the data we see on social medias are created by people that are active online or are there people that actually generate data to create communities? How do business interact with people that produce data about their business and why?

Peoples questions about data and cookies could be put to rest if it became something that was address and companies were not so secretive about it, as nearly everyone knows that our devices store data however companies deceiving us about what they do with this data just makes peoples question their trust for these devices that they trust to store all their data on.


Mining Mobile Youth Cultures



  • Social data – is data an individual creates that is knowing shared by them.

“Facebook has so much social data about me”

  • Unprecedented – something that is never done before, people do not know of it.

“That was so unprecedented of you”

  • Denotes – to be a sign of something.

“Denotes are important symbols”

  • Hackathons – a large amount of people engaging in collaborative computing programming.

“Hackathons are so exciting”

  • Data footprint – the information you leave behind

“I leave a lot of data footprint on Facebook daily”

  • Contemporary – something that happens at the same time as another.

“It snowed and rained contemporary”

  • Corporate – a big company/organisation.

“Google is one of the biggest search corporates”

The keyword that stood out to me throughout this article is Hackathos. Hackathos are actual events that take place in which computer programmers and others that are involved in software developments all take part in software projects. These events can last up to weeks and are used for both educational purposes and also to create software. Thought it was very interesting that there is a whole community out there that just detangles data and create something out of it.

This article looks into how much information a simple app that people download is able to collect data via your mobile phone. A research involving the young coder community using their phone after installing the Mobile Miner app. The app had a job of collecting data from their phones and storing it. The aim of the research was to learn what ‘data footprint’ is left behind whilst the young individuals used their phones throughout their daily activities. They also looked into how different types of information circulate among different corporate organisations and how the data that ends up getting collected gets develop into larger data. Many people are aware that their data gets stored whilst they carry out their day to day activities, specially the young coder community as they were born into technology and since they have extra interest in coding they should be even more aware of all the data that gets stored from our devices. After the data was collected the research team then done focus groups with the participants, the insight from these interviews was that most of the youths were actually not as aware as they thought of how much data gets stored and how little privacy they actually have. As the young coder community not understand as much as the data footprint as they thought, would make you question how little do others that do not necessary take interest in coding actually know or are aware off.

Yet, the young individuals that were asked were quite aware of programming since they were active on computers themselves and even though they did agree that they were aware that some data of theirs was stored they were not however aware of how much data was actually stored. Many of us go on with our daily lives not actually thinking about what data gets saved from the activities we choose to do online nor do we think about where this data goes or what happens to it.

Creating apps is now so quick and easy, that there have been apps created to just create apps. Apps being something we download into our phones or other devices that offer us a certain service like a game or music etc. Apps have seen a growth in their usages within the last couple of years with more companies now having an app for themselves and more people owning a smart phone on which you are able to download these apps for, apps have become a must on all mobile devices nowadays. Apps are now one of the main sources that companies are able to collect data about an individual without them even being aware of so.

When we downloads these apps we put very little thought behind what actually gets stored into out app, every time we choose to download an app it asks us to agree or disagree with their terms and conditions and we all just agree without actually reading these terms and conditions, however if people were to start reading these terms and conditions they would clearly be told that the app if they agree will have access to all there data that they would leave behind whilst using the devices that this app is on. There are four different types of apps that are currently available on the market

  • Native apps. These apps are coded with a specific programming language. They are very reliable, fast and powerful apps however they are tied to mobile devices.
  • Hybrid apps. These apps rely strongly on framework. However they offer the chance to have compatibility and access to the phones hardware such the camera, maps etc.
  • Dedicated web apps. This is a tailored web site that is specific to a platform or a form factor.
  • Generic mobile apps. These are mobile web sites that are designed to match every web-enabled phone.

All of these apps whilst in their normal form will seem normal to the human eye however if someone was to start taking these apps apart and un-coding them you would be able to see all the different ways our data gets collected by different types of apps.

Yet, gathering data only from apps is a very tricky way for companies to get data about us as individuals as we look for things in many different places therefore if a company chooses to only base our social graphs on something they gathered only from an app they could possible have a very wrong insight as this is a very fast changing market that can simply not be predicted easily. However now that people have relised that sometimes these apps are now updated as quickly as the actual website of the shops are so a lot of people are choosing to go on the web to search, and buy items as they know they will be getting the latest and best price meaning they will get a good deal. However it is harder for companies to store data about the individual when they go on the web as this means they are entering a whole other world which if they want the information they have to find alternatives to collect cookies.

A quote that stood out to be throughout this article was “Most of the participants agreed that privacy is relative to the amount of information that you are comfortable sharing. Some even expressed that ‘if you have nothing to hide you have nothing to fear’. However, participants also worked through the idea that privacy is not something that should necessarily be understood as an individual construct but rather as something that is experienced collectively.” The reason this quote is interesting is because the young individuals felt like even though they were not too keen on their data being stored however were also thinking about the bigger scale of why our data gets collected. Yet, their opinion I feel like are a little bit bias as they are individuals that take interest in computing and need us humans to create data for them to be able to work with it, therefore to some exact I do think they really care for others also as they are able to some extent to limit the amount of their own data that gets saved. Our data being stored does have a variety of positive outcomes but to advertising companies it means that we can get suggested pages that would be directed for us making our lives easier as these advertising companies would have access to our data and know what kind of things we like. Data being collected from our devices have had positive impact on the society a number of times for example when Swine flu broke out Google stored data from their research engine which they then used to create a social graph with all the data they collected which they then used to predict where the virus is travelling. We as individuals that do use technology on daily basis do not actually know when or what data gets stored nor where it ends up being used however nor do we choose to think of these kind of things as people that are not interested simply do not care. Data being stored it is something that has been happening for years and it is not something we have much say in, nevertheless I think as people we should be able to have some privacy with our data and be able to choose what gets shared.

A question that arise to me throughout this reading is should people have a say about what data of theirs gets stored and if so what effect would this have on big data overall? Would it be beneficial to us?

Why does our data get stored and for how long?

Are most apps for our phone free because they collect data that they then can sell?

Advertising food chains


  • “Paid search” – Is when companies get paid depending on ‘cost-per-click’ and ‘pay-per-click’

“That advert attracted loads of clicks therefore is it a popular paid search”

  • “Media buyers” – Are people that purchase, monitor and negotiate advertising space on behalf of their client

“This Media buyer is monitors their clients space very well”

  • “Long tail” – Refers to a large number of products that are sold in small quantities.

“All these products were sold so long tail”

  • “Web publishers” – Is the process of building, uploading, updating and publishing content of the Internet.

“This web publisher post so many useful contexts online”

  • “Real Time Bidding (RTB) – Is when advertising inventory is sold/bought via programmatic instantaneous auction.

“That was sold on real time bidding therefore we got a good price”



A keyword that stood out to my was “Paid search” whilst researching about what it meant, I was very interested to find out that when we click on certain things they would actually be making money for companies therefore the more clicks an advert would get the higher the profit would be for a company. This made me think about Facebook storing our date, which they then use to have better knowledge about what kind of adverts to post on our pages. This means that our stored data we create on daily basis on social medias help companies to have better direction of choice of advertising to out on our page which means we are more likely to press on them therefore they end up making money from our attention being caught and us clicking on it to find out more.


Another keyword that I thought was very interesting is “media buyers” have a very important job of trying to understand and monitor on behalf of their clients therefore if they do not do so to a high standard that means their client would end up not being as informed as he possibly could be. A media buys job involves reaching the highest number of people in the target audience at the lowest price meaning that money gets saved for the client and an opportunity for higher profits. Since media buyers have such an important role to their clients they are a vital part of the advertising food chain.


This articles focuses on the advertising food chains, which looks at how different companies are linked together to gain more popularity on the web for us consumers. More popularity for websites on search engines such as Google mean that they are likely to appear higher in the search results which mean that more people are going to click on it which then gives opportunities for advertising companies to understand costumers better and be more direct with the adverts they offer the individuals. A larger popularity within consumers means that companies receive a larger variety of attention as people that interested in something might post about it that could actually lead to others seeing it. Consumers can also be known to be part of the advertising food chain as they too can pass on information to others, as word of mouth. Word of mouth is a very positive type of advertising companies can receive as people tell others that they know of their product that have a positive vibe to it as people tend to trust people they know. However this can backfire if the brand does something that the consumer does not like as then the word of mouth can turn negative instantly and the company would end up receiving bad attention. Many companies share our data within each other to gain better understand of us as individuals so that they can alter what we see on the Internet to be more direct to us as individuals.


Google being the main focus of this article. Google is a search engine that we all know and we all use. Google being the focus of the article mean that we can all relate too as right now Google is the largest and most popular online search tool to human kind. Even though there are other search engines that are available Google being such a large and preferred website means that their search results are always the best and most accurate. Google is available to everyone, everywhere that has an Internet connect free of charge. As Google is used and available to everyone it is a hotspot for advertising as advertising companies are able to reach out to a larger scale of audience with less work, meaning they could have a quicker impact on costumer’s online decisions. This also meant that the right advertising could be targeted to the right individuals at the right time consequently they are more likely to click on it, meaning companies that are based on “paid search” would then be making more money as more people will be clicking on it. However for this technique to work it depends largely on exactly what the consumer typed into the Google search due to Google having very specific search formulas. Even though Google is a very smart search engine and is able to make sense of things even when they do not make sense, Google has specific keywords that give you certain searches. Yet, even though you might type in different words but in the same context you will still end up with the same webpage at the top of your search engine that is because Google use data that they gather from people choices of clicks when they receive their Google search results. Google is not only good for companies to receive data from about people but Google is also good to advertise on to costumers that the company have data about as the company is able to connect with the individual directly.


Later in the article a point is made that data exchange firms are the winners of the digital selling and buying food chain due to having such a large amount of cookies that they are able to sell to advertisers. The reason I found this so interesting is because it made me think of where would these data exchange firms would be if it were not for online search engines such as Google? A lot of online advertising is based purely on the data they receive from social platforms such as Google that they add together and create ‘social graphs’ from which then help companies to predict what advert will be better for what individual. Companies that collect the most data from us are the companies that we feed data to on our day-to-day activates such as Google, Facebook, Twitter and others since we feed the most data to these companies they are the winners of data exchange as they have the most data to offer other companies. Another reason I found this interesting is because the article states that the data exchange firms are the winners of the food chain however if you were to take away the companies that actually buy this data and took them out of the food chain the actual exchange firms would then crash too as no one would be buying their cookies which would mean their cookies would be quite useless. Yet, that makes me wonder if that would stop the companies saving our data? But if they do stop saving our data and selling it off then our adverts would be very broad.


Overall I think the advertising food chain has developed so much over the years that it has strong links with each step of the food chain that if parts of it start missing or not provide the information that they require then the whole food chain would just crash.


Some of the questions that arise to me throughout this reading were mainly about Google collecting data? Google seem to want to know everything about us and they store this data very publicly. Google are not secretive about saving our data they claim the reason they want to save our data is for our benefit, it is to help us with our day-to-day actives. They claim that they do not save our data for their own use only for ours however being such a large company and having so much cookies about everyone they are the source of all data exchange firms. If Google did decide to only use our data to help us with out everyday activities and stopped selling it to other companies, many advertisements would crash, as they would have little insight about their online audience. Outcome of companies having little insight of their audience would lead to advertising companies not being able to target their audiences as well online.


What would happen if you took Google and/or other search engines out of the food chain, would this food chain still work and if so what changes would it lead too?

Would data companies then start to gather their own cookies? Maybe create an app that they could use? Or create a virus that stays in certain apps to collect data from individuals?

Software Tunnels through Rags ‘N Refuse by Paul Caplan



  • Open Graph – Is when different platforms are able to interact with different social networking software’s.
  • Social Graph – Shows the relationships of different data in online social network. “The social graph shows that people that shop online more also upload more photos online”
  • Social CV – Your online profile that has been generated from your online actions. “Your social CV says you like buying clothes from online shops”
  • Anthropomorphism – Are characteristics or behaviors of an individual towards things.
  • Social networker – Someone that uses the web to communicate with others. “I use Facebook to communicate to others, therefore I am a social networker.
  • Data items – Unit of data contained in a record. “Facebook has a large variety of data items”


The keyword that really stood out to be throughout this reading is ‘Social CV’ the reason this word stood out to me because I thought it was quite an interested concept. A CV being something that we use present ourselves to others when applying for jobs, in a CV we write things that we actually want others to know about us which set the bar of how they would feel about us. However a ‘Social CV’ is something that we have no say about what actually gets collected and put towards it, it gets created by our day-to-day actives that we choose to do on social media. Companies can tell a lot about what we like and dislike from our ‘Social CVs’ as things get stored on their without us even realizing that so is happening every time we search something on Google or simple press ‘Like’ on Facebook.


Another keyword that stood out to me was ‘Social Graph’ the reason I found this phrase so interested is because when I was researching it and trying to find out what it meant, I found out that different social platforms are able to put different types of data together which they then create a graph from which helps them predict what people are more like to do which then means that they are able to target different types of adverts towards the individual. An example I came across was someone who ‘Likes’ things online is more likely to also shop online instead of going to the store and buying things, however an individual that is known to shop in store would see adverts which would direct them to the stores to purchase the items. All this by different data’s being added together to create a prediction about you from your social footprints.


Software tunnels through rags ‘n refuse by Paul Caplan is an article that talks about how the data we create in our everyday lives is stored from different websites and devices that get developed throughout our movements on social media. Many of us are not actually as aware as we should be of how much data of ours actually gets stored, nor do we know where it gets stored nor where it ends up being used. Some would argue that data being stored is violating our privacy as data that maybe we would like not to be stored still gets stored without our permission. As individuals that use social media on daily basis we basically feed our information out to companies for them to use for whatever they like. Even though this does at times have positive outcomes such as adverts that appear within our browsers to be directed more to us therefore they would be showing us things that we all want and are interested in seeing.


Facebook being one of the social medias that the article focuses on has had much controversy about what they actually save from our personal Facebook profiles. Facebook is a social media platform that nearly everyone in the world seems to have a profile on, it is very popular for being an easy and convenient way to communicate with people all over the world. Facebook are very honest about saving our data when asked about it and many people are aware that Facebook does save their data even after we choose to delete it for example if you deactivate your Facebook account no matter if it is for a day or for a year if you choose to active your account again your personal Facebook page will open up exactly where you left it last. A quote that stood out to me from this essay is a quote by Facebook that says, “Here ‘data items’ and ‘relationships are the building blocks, the objects that create and are created by the Timeline’. The reason this quote stood out to me was because when I read it first time I did not understand what Facebook meant by that as it is quite a complicated phrase to make sense of therefore I decided to start detaching the words. First phrase I explored was ‘data items’ this means a unit of data contained in a record. Facebook uses our data that we create whilst using their services to build a ‘Social CV’ of us and it amazes me how much Facebook goes through just to make sure they know what we like and what we don’t like and they find all this out by what we search, what we like even about things that we post on our timelines. Facebook’s “social CV’ of us gets bigger every minute as they store every big and little thing from our Facebook pages. Even if we choose not to post things on our Facebook ourselves Facebook actually can manage to find information about you by looking at data from your friends Facebook and seeing if they can link both together. Yet, even though we are aware that our data gets stored we still choose to carry on and feed the social media with our ‘Likes’, status and photos


An article on TIME by Victor Luckerson from 2014 talks about Facebook facing some troubles with their privacy policies as they want users to have a person space to communicate with others but at the same time they are still allowing other business to have access to their user data. Many of us when joining Facebook choose to do so to communicate with our friends and family in a safe and easy way. However Facebook are know for selling data to other business which allows the other business to see what we like and what we don’t like which helps them identify what kind of advertising we would want to see, this then leads to specific things appearing on our timeline and Internet browser. Even though in that contexts it might not seem like such a big deal as this means adverts get more personalized and were more likely to see adverts of things that would actually interest us and we would actually want to buy yet when you think about the fact that Facebook is storing information about you and then making a profit selling it to others which you did not agree too isn’t the best thing. Facebook is able to sell any of your data with or without your permission as far as you are signed up for Facebook however there is many people that would not want their data to be sold or used for anything, as they want to have the security of their privacy and keep their information for themselves. When Facebook first emerged and people started creating their profiles everyone was very excited about the fact that they can now keep in touch with their family and friends quickly and easily however the moment you joined Facebook you was trapped, you would not be able to delete yourself from there. The only option you had was to delete everything manually from your profile, which meant all your status and photographs and messages you would have to go and delete one by one however even after you delete them Facebook would still end up keeping them in their data. However since 2010 Facebook has added an option to delete your profile but it doesn’t specify if it deletes your profile from being available to the public or it deletes all your data, that being said if you do choose to activate your profile again it opens it up right where you left it. Also if you do deactivate your profile and try search for things that you posted on Google you do actually end up finding the things you posted on there which means Facebook does not actually delete your data they just make it less public to others.


This article raised a few questions for me about Facebook and how our social CV are not only created but used too.

Facebook selling our data to other companies, is it a positive thing? What would happen if Facebook decided to no longer sell our date? Why does Facebook need to collect our data in the first place? Is it only because they want to sell it to other companies to make a profit? If Facebook does not actually delete our data what does it do with it, and why?